Syrian Law- Recent Legislation

In this section, we aim to keep you updated with current developments by supplying details on the latest noteworthy laws that have been passed since early 2013. While the SLJ features all the main laws that are presently in force dating back several decades, it is nonetheless worthwhile to keep readers regularly informed of recently enacted legislation on a daily, weekly or monthly basis whenever possible. The latest ones can be found towards the top of this page. In order for us to keep you notified of new updates in this section, please click here.

 

Martyrs’ Families Employment Law

Legislative Decree 22/2017
  • Amends the Martyrs’ Families Employment Law.
  • According to the Law, 50% of job vacancies in the public sector are reserved for the families of martyrs.
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on May 28, 2017

Public-Private Partnership Law

Legislative Decree 21/2017
  • Introduces some procedural adjustments to the Public-Private Partnership Law.
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on May 16, 2017

Council of Ministers Rules of Procedure Law

Legislative Decree 20/2017
  • Establishes a new system for the Rules of Procedure of the Council of Ministers.
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on May 16, 2017

Income Tax Law

Legislative Decree 19/2017
  • Makes some revisions to the Income Tax Law with respect to touristic facilities.
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on May 8, 2017

Shipping Fees Law

Legislative Decree 18/2017
  • Amends Law 27/2008 with respect to shipping fees.
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on May 2, 2017

Telecommunication Payments Exemption Law

Legislative Decree 17/2017
  • Exempts debtors to the Syrian Telecommunications Company from interest and other payments if they settle their debts.
  • Applies to debtors who have subscribed to landline, telex, wireless devices and so forth.
  • Subscribers whose subscriptions were cancelled due to unpaid debts can restore them if they pay half their debts at least.
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on April 24, 2017

General Women’s Union Law

Legislative Decree 16/2017
  • Revokes Law 33/1975 (amended by Law 3/1984), which led to the creation of the Union.
  • Accordingly, the Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour will replace the Union with respect to its rights and duties.
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on April 23, 2017

Maritime Courts Law

Law 20/2017
  • Establishes the Maritime Courts of First Instance and Appeal.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on March 29, 2017
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on April 9, 2017

Industrial Imports Law

Law 19/2017
  • Exempts imported machines and production lines bound for licensed industrial businesses from customs duties and other import fees.
  • Accordingly, the Ministry of Economy and Foreign Trade will be in charge of granting import licenses for these machines and production lines.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on March 30, 2017
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on April 9, 2017

Social Security Exemption Law

Law 15/2017
  • Extends the provisions of Law 4/2016 for another year.
  • Law 4/2016 exempts employers registered with the General Establishment for Social Security from paying interest payments and other fines incurred.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on March 29, 2017
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on April 5, 2017

Arms and Ammunition  Law

Law 10/2017
  • Amends the fees of licenses stipulated for in Article 37 of the Arms and Ammunition Law provided for in Legislative Decree 51/2001.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on March 9, 2017
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on March 19, 2017

Poultry and Cattle Farms Income Tax Law

Law 8/2017
  • Exempts poultry and cattle farms from income tax for a period of five years to economically support these facilities.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on February 19, 2017
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on February 23, 2017

Mineral Resources Law

Law 7/2017
  • Safeguards the state’s right to protect mineral resources and prevent their illegal extraction, transfer and distribution.
  • Article 2: The state has the right to claim mineral resources extracted by the public, private and joint sectors and any subsequent revenues shall be transferred to the Public Treasury.
  • Article 3: Determines the value of the state’s right, which can be adjusted annually by a decision from the Minister of Finance.
  • The previous legislation regulating this sector was provided for in the Mineral Resources Law 67/2006.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on February 9, 2017
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on February 16, 2017

Electricity Theft Law

Law 6/2017
  • Contains amendments to Article 4 of the Electricity Theft Law provided for in Legislative Decree 35/2015.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on February 7, 2017
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on February 9, 2017

Insurance Courts Law

Law 5/2017
  • Establishes civil courts of first instance and appeal in each of the Syrian provinces with the exclusive jurisdiction to adjudicate on insurance-related disputes.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on February 6, 2017
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on February 9, 2017

Civil Status Law

Law 4/2017
  • Amends the Civil Status Law provided for in Legislative Decree 26/2007 to address and reflect current conflict-related challenges.
  • Any change in a Syrian citizen’s civil status abroad is deemed valid if it is legally compliant in that country and does not conflict with Syrian law.
  • The civil status amendment overseas must be registered with the Syrian embassy, consulate or body representing Syrian interests in the respective country.
  • If one of the spouses is a foreign national, the registration of the marriage requires the approval of the Ministry of Foreign and Expatriate Affairs.
  • A husband and wife must subsequently obtain what is known as a ‘family card’.
  • Other amendments provide for a fine of SYP 15,000 to be paid in the event a non-registered person does not apply for civil status registration within one year after they turn 18.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on February 7, 2017
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on February 9, 2017

Armored Cars Law

Legislative Decree 12/2017
  • Lays down provisions concerning customs duties and fines related to armored cars.
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on February, 2017

General Amnesty Law

Legislative Decree 11/2017
  • Extends the General Amnesty Law provided for in Legislative Decree 15/2016 until June 30, 2017.
  • The general amnesty was granted to armed individuals who turned themselves in to the authorities and laid down their arms and to those who set their hostages free.
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on February 2, 2017

Syrian Trade Establishment Law

Legislative Decree 6/2017
  • Merges three public entities into the Syrian Trade Establishment with the authority to directly import goods.
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on January 18, 2017

Temporary Employees Law

Legislative Decree 4/2017
  • Stipulates that a minister may provide permanent job positions to temporary employees on an annual contractual basis.
  • Applies to the families of martyrs, including their sons and daughters, and to those on youth contracts.
  • According to the Minister of Social Affairs and Labour, 40,000 temporary employees stand to benefit from permanent employment under this Law.
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on January 12, 2017

Military Service Law

Law 3/2017
  • Amends Articles 48 and 49 of the Military Service Law provided for in Legislative Decree 30/2007.
  • Allows Syrians aged between 17 and 42 years to travel abroad upon obtaining approval from the General Conscription Directorate after paying SYP 50,000.
  • The Law exempts civilian employees, those exempted from compulsory military service, Army and security personnel, those on government-sponsored study programs, or those who are part of official missions among others from paying the fee.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on December 27, 2016
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on January 5, 2017

Evangelical Denominate Law

Law 2/2017
  • Regulates inheritance and wills for the followers of the Evangelical denomination in Syria.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on December 27, 2016
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on January 5, 2017

Martyrdom Law

Law 1/2017
  • Grants a martyrdom certificate to injured military personnel who succumbed to their wounds after they completed their military service.
  • The wounds include those sustained due to the ongoing war and military operations against hostile elements and terrorist groups.
  • Accordingly, the families of such military personnel shall receive the rights afforded to the families of martyrs.
  • Proof of martyrdom resulting from the conflict must be provided.
  • The Law retroactively applies to cases dating back to March 15, 2011.
  • It is worth noting that the rights resulting from martyrdom differ from those accorded to injured military personnel.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on December 27, 2016
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on January 5, 2017

Driver License Fees Law

Law 26/2016
  • Raises fee collections for driver licenses in all categories as the Ministry of Interior is planning to issue automated tamper-proof licenses.
  • Amends Article 34 of Legislative Decree 117/1961, which was also amended by Legislative Decree 66/2013.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on December 1, 2016
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on December 7, 2016

Budget Law

Law 24/2016
  • Gives effect to the 2017 national budget worth SYP 2.66 trillion after it was approved by the People’s Assembly.
  • President Bashar Al-Assad had previously referred the draft to the Syrian Parliament.
  • The Balance and Accounts Committee in the People’s Assembly had recently reviewed the provisions of the budget for each Ministry.
  • The Minister of Finance had previously told MPs that the budget allocates large sums for health, education and utilities while reducing administrative spending to the lowest possible sum.
  • The breakdown of the budget includes SYP 1.98 trillion for running expenditures and SYP 678 billion for investments. From this amount, SYP 423 billion is allocated for social support initiatives, SYP 50 billion is being allocated annually for limited reconstruction and repairs while investment allocations for the agricultural sector total SYP 25.3 billion.
  • During the budget deliberations, the Minister of Finance told MPs that the budget deficit rose 244% over the past five years since the conflict began.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on November 30, 2016
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on December 4, 2016

Al-Assad University Hospital Law

Law 23/2016
  • Sanctions the transfer of Al-Assad University Hospital in Lattakia to the Ministry of Defence.
  • The Law also transfers employees of Al-Assad University Hospital in Lattakia to Tishreen University Hospital.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on November 17, 2016
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on November 23, 2016

Sworn Translators Law

Law 22/2016
  • Deals with sworn translators obtaining an official license before practising the profession.
  • Amends Article 2 of the Sworn Translators Law and stipulates that no person may practise the profession unless they are registered accordingly and receive their official license from the Ministry of Justice in exchange for a SYP 25,000 fee.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on November 17, 2016
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on November 23, 2016

General Amnesty Law

Legislative Decree 32/2016
  • Extends the validity of Legislative Decree 15/2016, which relates to the granting of amnesty, for three months.
  • Legislative Decree 15/2016 grants amnesty to those persons who turn themselves in to the authorities and lay down their arms as well as those who set their hostages free.
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on October 27, 2016

Telecommunications Law

Legislative Decree 31/2016
  • Extends the mandate of the Syrian Telecommunications Company, which was established pursuant to the Telecommunications Law 18/2010.
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on October 1, 2016

Residence Permits Law

Legislative Decree 30/2016
  • Amends Article 29(a) of Law 2/2014 and thereby raises the fees for granting residence permits to Arabs and foreigners living in Syria.
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on October 1, 2016

Border Departure Law

Legislative Decree 24/2016
  • Amends Legislative Decree 34/2009 with regards to departure fees.
  • Each person leaving Syria from an airport shall pay a fee of SYP 5,000 while those leaving from land borders or ports must pay SYP 2,000 each.
  • Every car departing Syria incurs a fee of SYP 10,000.
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on September 7, 2016

Cabinet Consultative Council Law

Legislative Decree 22/2016
  • Establishes the Cabinet Consultative Council to advise the Prime Minister and ministers on affairs of state.
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on September 1, 2016

Judicial Common Fund Law

Law 21/2016
  • Establishes a common fund for judges, the state’s lawyers at the Legal Affairs Department and the Public Prosecutor’s Office.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on July 31, 2016
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on August 30, 2016

Illegal Mobile Phones Law

Law 20/2016
  • Exempts owners of illegally-imported mobile phones from fines and legal liability if they declare them to the Customs Directorate and pay the required fees.
  • Law will be effective for three months.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on July 31, 2016
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on August 3, 2016

Competition Commission Law

Legislative Decree 19/2016
  • Provides for the Competition Protection and Anti-Monopoly Commission to be affiliated to the Ministry of Internal Trade and Consumer Protection.
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on August 25, 2016

General Amnesty Law

Legislative Decree 15/2016
  • Grants an amnesty to those persons who turn themselves in and lay down their weapons, and also to kidnappers who set their hostages free.
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on July 28, 2016

Judicial Proceedings Transfer Law

Law 15/2016
  • Extends the provisions of Legislative Decree 28/2013 for a fourth year upon the expiration of the recent extension provided for in Legislative Decree 24/2015.
  • Legislative Decree 28/2013 permits the Supreme Judicial Council to transfer lawsuit proceedings from one court to another in exceptional circumstances after a formal request has been made by the Minister of Justice.
  • The Law was originally passed to ease the transfer of cases from conflict to safe areas and to extend the time period for processing claims that were lost, burnt or destroyed during the war.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on July 17, 2016
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on July 20, 2016

Public Employment Law

Law 14/2016
  • Revokes the decision that terminates the employment of public sector employees if they enlist for mandatory military service.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on July 14, 2016
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on July 20, 2016

Employment Salaries Law

Legislative Decree 13/2016
  • Adds an additional SYP 7,500 per month to the salaries of public sector employees, both civilian and military personnel, workers in the private and joint public-private sectors, and families of retired employees.
  • The SYP 7,500 per month is in addition to the SYP 4,000 monthly increase provided for in Employment Salaries Law and its executive regulations contained in Regulation 394/2015.
  • The executive regulations to this Law were issued by the Minister of Labour in Regulation 950/2016.
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on June 18, 2016

Foreign Employees Rules

ML Regulation 888/2016
  • Foreign nationals must not compete with Syrian workers and their work experience and competence must be taken into consideration.
  • They have to obtain a work permit and residence permit for employment purposes.
  • The number of foreign nationals employed by one employer cannot exceed 10% of the total employed workforce.
  • The salaries for foreign employees cannot exceed 30% of the total salaries paid by that employer.
  • There are however additional restrictions imposed on the number of foreign nationals employed by banks, insurance companies, financial services companies and brokerages.
  • The number of foreign nationals at these companies cannot exceed nine percent of the total employed workforce during the first two years of operations.
  • They must gradually decrease to three percent of the total employed workforce after five years.
  • If there is a lack of Syrians capable of doing jobs at these companies, the Ministry of Labour can raise these quotas.
  • The restrictions contained in this Regulation do not apply to foreign nationals resident in Syria for more than 15 years prior to the submission of their work permit application.
  • They also do not apply if the potential worker has a Syrian mother or is married to a Syrian national.
Issued by Dr. Khalaf Al-Abdullah, Minister of Labour, on June 6, 2016

Import Deposit Rules

MEFT Regulation 481/2016
  • Seeks to facilitate the flow of imports into Syria.
  • A few items were exempted from the Rules while changes were made to the list that comprises ‘Category A’ imports.
  • The deposit rules for ‘Category B’ imports were reduced from 100% to 25% and this new deposit requirement includes goods that are subject to customs duties of 20% and 30%.
Issued by Dr. Humam Al-Jazairi, Minister of Economy and Foreign Trade, on June 5, 2016

Digital Real Estate Gazette Law

Legislative Decree 12/2016
  • Grants legal status to the digital version of the Real Estate Gazette.
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on May 19, 2016

Property Registration Law

Legislative Decree 11/2016
  • Suspends the registration of properties in land registries that were closed due to unstable security conditions.
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on May 5, 2016

UNIDROIT Convention Law

Legislative Decree 10/2016
  • Syria accedes to the 1995 UNIDROIT Convention on Stolen or Illegally Exported Cultural Objects.
  • The UNIDROIT Convention complements the 1970 UNESCO Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property and further aims to strengthen the fight against the illegal trafficking of cultural property.
  • Throughout the current conflict, Syria has been a victim of the illegal trafficking of cultural property, such as in Palmyra and many other places.
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on May 2, 2016

Supreme Judicial Institute Law

Legislative Decree 9/2016
  • Amends Article 15 of Law 23/2013 with the objective of increasing the number of highly-qualified applicants to the Supreme Judicial Institute, the body entrusted with training judges.
 Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on April 24, 2016

Loan Guarantee Law

Law 12/2016
  • Sets up the Loan Guarantee Establishment (LGE).
  • Headquartered in Damascus with a capital of SYP 5 billion, the LGE is to take the form of a private joint stock company that does not offer its shares to the public.
  • The Central Bank and certain financial institutions can contribute to its capital but foreign shareholders are limited to a 49% shareholding.
  • The LGE’s main objective will be to guarantee loans by banks and other financial institutions to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).
  • By guaranteeing loans to SMEs, the LGE will seek to bolster their position in the economy.
  • It is expected to give banks and other financial institutions a certain degree of confidence to lend money to SMEs.
  • The LGE is permitted to invest its surplus funds at a value of no more than 25% of its capital in low-risk financial investments.
  • The Economic Committee, which is linked to the Council of Ministers, welcomed the People’s Assembly’s passage of this Law.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on March 23, 2016
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on March 28, 2016

Scientific Excellence and Creativity Agency Law

Law 11/2016
  • Establishes the Scientific Excellence and Creativity Agency, which will be linked to the Minister of Higher Education.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on March 7, 2016
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on March 10, 2016

Teachers Pension Fund Law

Law 9/2016
  • Establishes a pension fund for teachers.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on February 28, 2016
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on March 3, 2016

Electoral Law

Law 8/2016
  • Amends some provisions of the Electoral Law to take into account certain logistical issues in order to hold the upcoming parliamentary elections in April.
  • The People’s Assembly moved quickly in passing this Law after it was briefly reviewed by its Constitutional and Legislative Affairs Committee.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on February 22, 2016
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on February 23, 2016

Military Amnesty Law

Legislative Decree 8/2016
  • Grants amnesty to soldiers both inside and outside Syria who deserted their posts.
  • Also grants amnesty for crimes included in the Military Service Law that were committed before February 17, 2016.
 Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on February 17, 2016

Hero Order Law

Law 6/2016
  • Amends Article 5 of Legislative Decree 75/1973, which created the Order of the Hero of the Republic.
  • The Order was originally awarded to civilians in Syria who contribute towards achieving military victories and to soldiers in Arab armies that fight alongside Syrian forces.
  • According to the Law, the Order can now be awarded to fighters from other allied countries fighting alongside Syrian forces.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on February 11, 2016
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on February 17, 2016

Housing Exemption Law

Legislative Decree 7/2016
  • Exempts citizens benefiting from social housing provided by the General Housing Establishment from paying fines for failing to make fee payments on time.
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on February 1, 2016

Public-Private Partnership Law

Law 5/2016
  • The Public-Private Partnership (PPP) has been enacted with a view to preparing the ground for reconstruction and the rehabilitation of infrastructure in coordination with the private sector.
  • PPPs can be defined as long-term contractual arrangements entered into by governmental entities and private sector parties with the aim of delivering services to the general public.
  • When delivering public services under these business models, the private partner bears most of the risk and management responsibility associated with running the public facility in return for a profit.
  • The PPP Law provides for the establishment of the PPP Council that makes important decisions to push PPP projects forward, which include approving PPP contracts. The PPP Council, which is chaired by the Prime Minister, supervises PPP projects and regulates agreements entered into by public and private sector partners.
  • The PPP Bureau is expected to be the institutional focal point for implementing the PPP program such as by identifying potential projects and actively participating in the project procurement lifecycle.
  • In terms of procurement procedures, the Tender Evaluation Committee will be tasked with evaluating bids and selecting preferred bidders.
  • The Law provides for investment incentives for private sector partners to become shareholders in special purpose vehicles, which include the right of financial repatriation by foreign investors.
  • The participation of the private sector along with its financial capabilities and expertise in delivering certain public services is recognized as a crucial component of the reconstruction process.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on December 29, 2015
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on January 10, 2016

Social Security Exemption Law

Law 4/2016
  • Exempts businessmen and employers registered with the General Establishment for Social Security from making penalty and interest payments if they pay their dues within a year.
  • Additionally, the Ministry of Labour has issued the executive regulations to implement this Law.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on December 29, 2015
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on January 6, 2016

Exports Development Law

Law 3/2016
  • Creates a body called the Agency for Supporting and Developing Local Products and Exports to replace the Export Development and Promotion Agency (EDPA).
  • Consequently, it revokes Legislative Decree 6/2009, which established the EDPA, and Legislative Decree 19/2009, which launched the Export Development Fund.
  • The new body will support the domestic production of goods and look to improve their quality in order to assist Syrian companies to meet local demand.
  • It will also encourage them to export their products overseas even under the strenuous conditions facing the country.
  • In strengthening its competitiveness in international markets, domestic production will be supported at all stages leading up to the exportation of the goods.
  • Following the enactment of this Law, the Ministry of Economy and Foreign Trade is preparing to activate the Agency for Supporting and Developing Local Products and Exports.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on December 29, 2015
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on January 6, 2016

Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Law

Law 2/2016
  • Establishes the Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SME) Development Agency to replace the General Employment and Project Development Agency.
  • The SME Development Agency is affiliated with the Ministry of Economy and Foreign Trade and covers a variety of sectors.
  • Its tasks include coordinating and making plans to develop SMEs, creating policies, undertaking studies, facilitating the financing of projects, monitoring their progress, and so on.
  • In accordance with this Law, the Minister of Economy and Foreign Trade has set up a committee to lay the foundations for the SME Development Agency to pursue its mandate.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on December 29, 2015
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on January 6, 2016

Civil Procedure Code

Law 1/2016
  • The civil courts- the Magistrate of the Peace, the Court of First Instance, the Court of Appeal and the Court of Cassation are operated in accordance with the Civil Procedure Code.
  • The Code lays down numerous provisions pertaining to how cases are managed throughout the civil court system and what actions judges may take under the relevant circumstances.
  • Judges play a dominant role during trial proceedings.
  • The latest Civil Procedure Code seeks to simplify and enhance the litigation process and the execution of judgments.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on December 17, 2015
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on January 3, 2016

Public Banks Loan Repayments Law

Law 26/2015
  • Sets the conditions and deadlines for settling debts owed to publicly-owned banks.
  • Lays out how debtors can apply to benefit from its provisions and also provides for the establishment of relevant committees to assess and approve applications.
  • Also deals with exemptions, circumstances when debts can be waived partially or totally, options when settlements are voidable, grace periods and much more.
  • Replaces the preceding Legislative Decree 213/2006, which used to govern loan repayments to public banks.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on December 27, 2015
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on December 29, 2015

Civil Status Law

Law 24/2015
  • Amends Article 20 of the Civil Status Law provided for in Legislative Decree 26/2007.
  • Facilitates the registration of birth and death certificates.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on December 2, 2015
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on December 8, 2015

Urban Planning Law

Law 23/2015
  • Deals with the concept of planning and the division and organization of land.
  • The Law has a particular focus on zoning provisions.
  • Helps to curb illegal housing settlements and to develop urban expansion.
  • Repeals Law 9/1974 and Law 60/1979, which previously regulated these matters.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on December 2, 2015
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on December 8, 2015

National Budget Law

Law 22/2015
  • Enacts the state’s national budget for 2016 estimated at SYP 1.98 trillion.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on November 19, 2015
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on November 23, 2015

Building Permit Fees Exemption Law

Law 21/2015
  • Exempts property owners from paying building permit fees if they are intending to carry out repairs on their properties to fix damages sustained as a result of the conflict in the country.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on November 16, 2015
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on November 23, 2015

Landlord and Tenant Law

Law 20/2015
  • Law 20/2015 seeks to put an end to manipulations of rents and other problems that have arisen between landlords and tenants.
  • Maintains more or less the favourable provisions towards landlords as those provided for in the preceding Law 6/2001.
  • The parties may set rental prices as they see fit
  • The parties are still permitted to conclude fixed-term leases.
  • Landlords and tenants are free to determine the conditions for rescission of leases.
  • Further restrictions have been inserted into this Law that seek to protect tenants from undue pressure to vacate leased properties.
  • Reference to evicting tenants under the previous law provided for in Legislative Decree 111/1952 by paying them 40% of the value of the leased property has been omitted.
  • Readopts the rule that political parties and public entities can be evicted from private properties starting on January 1, 2018 as long as their landlords pay them 40% of the value of the leased premises.
  • The registration of leases at the relevant municipal or administrative bodies can now be carried out by owners holding 75% of the shares in the leased property.
  • In order to assign a commercial lease, the tenant must pay the landlord an amount equaling 10% of the property value in order to transfer the lease to a third party.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on November 4, 2015
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on November 11, 2015

Pilots Law

Law 18/2015
  • Increases the age of retirement of Syrian Arab Airlines pilots from 60 years to 65 years.
  • Amends Article 200 of Legislative Decree 35/1979, which provides for the age of retirement.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on November 5, 2015
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on November 8, 2015

Payroll Tax Law

Legislative Decree 48/2015
  • Doubles the payroll tax for employees who receive an income comprised of a fixed payment to 10% from five percent.
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on October 1, 2015

Payroll Tax Law

Legislative Decree 46/2015
  • The minimum amount exempt from the payroll tax, which applies to salaries and wages earned by employees, has been increased to SYP 15,000 from SYP 10,000 in accordance with Legislative Decree 46/2015.
  • The provisions governing the payroll tax are found in the Income Tax Law.
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on September 23, 2015

Pensions Law

Legislative Decree 42/2015
  • Grants retired public sector employees, both civilian and military personnel, an increase of SYP 2,500 in their pension payments.
  • Also covers pensions received by the families of deceased pensioners
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on September 23, 2015

Employment Salaries Law

Legislative Decree 41/2015
  • Grants retired public sector employees, both civilian and military personnel, a monthly increase of SYP 2,500 in their salaries.
  • The pay raise will also apply to employees of mixed public-private sector companies, in which the state owns at least a 75% share.
  • Also covers other forms of contractual employment, including on a part-time basis.
  • Increases the monthly minimum wage to SYP 16,175 for employees in the private sector, the cooperative sector, and the mixed public-private sectors not subject to the provisions of the Public Employment Law.
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on September 23, 2015

Military Service Law

Legislative Decree 38/2015
  • Amends Article 74 of the Military Service Law provided for in Legislative Decree 30/2007.
  • Grants all public sector employees leave with pay while fulfilling their military service obligations and also guarantees them their right to return to their jobs.
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on September 13, 2015

Electricity Theft Law

Legislative Decree 35/2015
  • This law sanctions tougher penalties on individuals who illegally obtain electrical power.
  • Previous laws that address electricity theft have been enacted in the past as this issue is becoming more prominent as a result of electrical shortages in the country.
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on August 12, 2015

IFOAM Law

Legislative Decree 34/2015
  • Syria has acceded to the International Federation of Organic Agricultural Movements (IFOAM) by virtue of this law.
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on August 12, 2015

Economic and Financial Criminal Courts Law

Law 15/2015
  • Creates criminal courts with jurisdiction over economic and financial disputes.
  • During the current conflict and even before, there has been a surge in crimes of this nature.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on July 28, 2015
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on July 30, 2015

Consumer Protection Law

Law 14/2015
  • Replaces Law 2/2008.
  • Seeks to ensure that sellers respect competition in the markets.
  • Includes provisions governing prices by imposing important controls on merchants to protect consumers against price increases and monopolistic practices.
  • Measures in this Law include deploying inspectors into the markets to monitor vendors.
  • Provides for the regulation of imports.
  • Manufacturers are expected to maintain the quality of their products by adhering to certain standards of production.
  • Strict penalties have been adopted to deter the sale of products, which may be of poor quality or contaminated.
  • Consumers have the right to be informed of the details of a product or service.
  • False advertising or fraud is outlawed.
  • Sanctions against violators are expected to include heavy fines and imprisonment.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on June 25, 2015
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on July 26, 2015

Municipal Fees Exemption Law

Law 13/2015
  • Exempts persons from interests and other penalties if they settle their municipal fees and others liabilities, such as building violation fines, by the end of this year.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on July 22, 2015
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on July 26, 2015

Taxpayers Exemption Law

Law 12/2015
  • Exempts taxpayers from fines resulting from the late payment of income, consumption and property taxes as long as they pay them by the end of this year.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on July 22, 2015
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on July 26, 2015

Local Administration Law

Law 11/2015
  • Amends Article 55(1) of the Local Administration Law provided for in Legislative Decree 107/2011.
  • Relates to the powers of governors in the various provinces throughout Syria.
  • In the event of a provincial governor’s absence, the police chief in the province becomes the representative of the executive authority there and the deputy head of the province’s executive office acts on the governor’s behalf in all matters related to this body.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on July 22, 2015
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on July 26, 2015

General Amnesty Law

Legislative Decree 32/2015
  • Grants a general amnesty to military deserters both inside and outside Syria and to those who should be performing their mandatory military service but have refrained from doing so.
  • This law applies to violations committed before July 25, 2015.
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on July 25, 2015

Local Council Contracts Law

Law 10/2015
  • Permits extending the duration of investment and lease contracts that have been signed between local councils and their counterparties.
  • In certain areas of the country, these contracts have become difficult to implement by the contracting parties and thus, this Law seeks to remedy these situations as a result.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on July 6, 2015
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on July 8, 2015

Emergency Loans Law

Law 9/2015
  • Authorizes the Minister of Finance to provide emergency loans from the Public Treasury when necessary.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on July 7, 2015
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on July 8, 2015

Iranian Credit Line Law

Law 8/2015
  • Ratifies the latest credit line Iran agreed to provide to Syria estimated at around US$1 billion.
  • The credit line will be used to finance the import of goods and commodities as well as implementing various projects.
  • The two parties that agreed the deal are the Commercial Bank of Syria and Iran’s Export Development Bank.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on July 7, 2015
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on July 8, 2015

Custom Offenders Exemption Law

Law 7/2015
  • Exempts customs offenders from certain fines incurred in accordance with the Customs Law 38/2006 as long as they pay the required duties.
  • Exemptions from fines will apply if overdue customs duties along with other taxes and fees are paid up.
  • However, a fine worth 40% of the total value of the imported goods will also have to be paid.
  • Where applicable, other fines will be reduced to 10% accordingly.
  • Moreover, committees will be set up in accordance with this Law to conclude settlement agreements with offenders.
  • This Law applies to offences committed before July 9, 2013.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on July 5, 2015
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on July 7, 2015

Industrial Cities Building Permit Law

Law 6/2015
  • Exempts industrial businesses, craftsmen and artisans based in the industrial cities from paying the renewal fees for their building permits.
  • This Law applies to those parties whose permits expired but want to renew them and to those who are unable to complete the construction of their facilities due to the current unstable conditions.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on June 25, 2015
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on June 29, 2015

Loan Repayment Law

Law 5/2015
  • Extends Article 4(a) of Law 11/2014, which exempts borrowers of the state-owned Agricultural Cooperative Bank from paying interest payments and fines as long as they pay back their debts by December 31st of this year.
  • According to the Ministry of Agriculture, this Law seeks to support farmers who have been affected by the drought that hit the agricultural sector from 2013 to 2014.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on June 11, 2015
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on June 14, 2015

Road Traffic Law

Law 4/2015
  • Amends Articles 96 and 180 of the Road Traffic Law 31/2004.
  • Accordingly, owners and drivers will not be held liable if their vehicles are involved in accidents resulting in bodily harm while they are not in motion.
  • This change brings to an end a controversial policy whereby an owner or driver of a parked vehicle for instance was held responsible even if a cyclist or pedestrian struck their automobile and was injured as a result.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on June 9, 2015
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on June 11, 2015

Cattle Import Law

Legislative Decree 30/2015
  • Exempts the import of cattle from customs duties, taxes and other fees as long as they are used for the purposes of raising and breeding.
  • As a result, the price of one imported cow is predicted to reach SYP 50,000.
  • This law was enacted in response to serious pressures on the agricultural sector during the last few years, which affected the livestock industry.
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on June 9, 2015

Housing Law

Legislative Decree 26/2015
  • Regulates the activities of the General Housing Establishment (GHE) to meet the needs of the population in light of the current conflict, particularly through social housing.
  • The GHE is mainly tasked with satisfying the housing and construction requirements in the country and setting five-year plans to meet these targets.
  • Replaces the previous law provided for in Legislative Decree 76/2011.
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on May 27, 2015

University Lecturers Law

Legislative Decree 25/2015
  • The need to undertake the Agrégation, which is a civil service competitive examination that enables individuals to become university lecturers, no longer applies to graduates who come first in their respective degree.
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on May 24, 2015

Judicial Proceedings Transfer Law

Legislative Decree 24/2015
  • Legislative Decree 24/2015 extends the provisions of Legislative Decree 28/2013 for a third year after the original extension provided for by Legislative Decree 17/2014 expired.
  • Legislative Decree 28/2013 permits the Supreme Judicial Council to transfer lawsuit proceedings from one court to another in exceptional circumstances after a formal request has been made by the Minister of Justice.
  • This law was originally passed to ease the transfer of cases from conflict to safe areas.
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on May 24, 2015

Cards of Honour Law

Legislative Decree 20/2015
  • Grants ‘Cards of Honour’ to the relatives of martyrs, missing and disabled persons, which provides them with medical services free of charge, including hospitalizations, treatments and surgeries.
  • In addition, they will receive a 50% discount on public transportation fees.
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on April 30, 2015

Local Council Private Companies Law

Legislative Decree 19/2015
  • Permits the establishment of private joint stock companies on the basis of social, economic and regulatory studies with the objective of managing and investing the assets belonging to the various local councils within Syria.
  • Approval must first be sought from the Minister of Local Administration based on a proposal from the relevant provincial council.
  • These companies will consist of a chairman and members of local councils and their resolutions will have to be ratified by the governor of the province where the local council is located.
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on April 30, 2015

Turkish Imports Law

Legislative Decree 18/2015
  • Amends Law 28/2011 with regards to the imposition of a 30% fee on all Turkish goods and materials imported into Syria.
  • The law requires the fees collected to be utilized for reconstruction efforts.
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on April 29, 2015

Passports Law

Legislative Decree 17/2015
  • Amends Law 1/2014.
  • Doubles the fees of consular services provided to Syrian nationals living overseas.
  • Application fees for passports and visas are set at US$400 while the price for renewing them is fixed at US$200.
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on April 21, 2015

Companies Law

Legislative Decree 15/2015
  • Amends the Companies Law provided for in Legislative Decree 29/2011.
  • Extends by an additional year the time period for companies to settle their status in accordance with the Companies Law.
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on April 19, 2015

Nurseries Law

Law 3/2015
  • Deals with the organization and licensing of nurseries for children under the age of three years.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on March 15, 2015
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on March 23, 2015

Consumption Tax Law

Legislative Decree 11/2015
  • This law imposes taxes on a variety of goods and services ranging between one percent and 20% but can reach up to 60% with respect to automobile sales.
  • Syria does not presently have a formal Value Added Tax regime.
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on January 28, 2015

Income Tax Law

Legislative Decree 10/2015
  • Amends the main Income Tax Law 24/2003.
  • The changes in this law touch on the classification of taxpayers such as small businesses who are entitled to pay a fixed lump-sum amount as opposed to complying with the relevant tax brackets.
  • Provides that state-owned joint stock companies operated in accordance with the Companies Law are taxed at the single rate of 22%.
  • Exempts the sale of shares in both public and private joint stock companies from capital gains tax.
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on January 26, 2015

Employment Salaries Law

Legislative Decree 7/2015
  • Grants public sector employees an additional SYP 4,000 in monthly salaries.
  • Applies to both civilian and military personnel.
  • The executive regulations to this Law were issued by the Minister of Labour in Regulation 394/2015.
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on January 18, 2015

Common Property Dissolution Law

Law 1/2015
  • Repeals Law 21/1986 and reactivates Article 790 of the Civil Code.
  • Caters to the possibility that disputes may arise between common owners of property or that one or more of them may wish to put an end to the co-owner relationship between them.
  • Tasks the Magistrate of the Peace with solving these disputes with the assistance of valuation experts and its decisions may be challenged before the Court of Appeal.
  • The measures these courts may take include partitioning the property among the owners and deciding on claims of ownership.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on December 30, 2014
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on January 15, 2015

Customs Amnesty Law

Legislative Decree 4/2015
  • Exempts any person from criminal liability in the event they have illegally imported certain goods into Syria so long as they make the relevant declarations to the Customs authorities and pay the required duties and fees.
  • These exemptions shall be valid for a period of three months.
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on January 11, 2015

Tartous University Law

Legislative Decree 2/2015
  • Establishes Tartous University.
  • This University will initially be comprised of the following faculties:
  1. Medicine
  2. Education
  3. Economy
  4. Literature and Human Sciences
  5. Pharmaceuticals
  6. Technical Engineering
  7. Telecommunications and Information Technology
  8. Tourism
  9. Applied Sciences
  • The faculty and administrative staff of Tartous University will be sourced from Tishreen University in neighbouring Lattakia.
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on January 5, 2015

Martyrs’ Families Employment Law

Law 36/2014
  • Allocates 50% of job vacancies in the public sector to the families of martyrs.
  • Competitions provided for under the Public Employment Law 50/2004 will be used for the purposes of recruitment.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on December 29, 2014
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on December 31, 2014

Gold Bullion Registration Law

Law 35/2014
  • Imposes a fine amounting to $200 (US) (or its equivalent SYP value) payable to the Central Bank on every kilogram of gold on any owner who does not register their bullion accordingly.
  • Owners who have failed to register their gold bullions and who have not paid the relevant import fees are provided with an opportunity to do so in order to avoid any legal liabilities.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on December 21, 2014
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on December 24, 2014

Medical Laboratories Law

Law 34/2014
  • Amends the main law contained in Legislative Decree 42/2012.
  • Imposes penalties including imprisonment from one-to-three years and a fine ranging from SYP 300,000 to SYP 500,000 on any person who undertakes medical lab work without a valid license.
  • Permits the Minister of Health to issue an order to shut down any medical laboratories operating without a license and to confiscate their equipment.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on December 10, 2014
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on December 15, 2014

Medical Advertisements Law

Law 32/2014
  • Amends the Law 7/2005.
  • Imposes penalties including imprisonment from three months to two years and a fine ranging from SYP 100,000 to SYP 300,000 on any person who promotes medical advertisements without obtaining prior permission to establish an advertisement office for this purpose.
  • Any unlicensed medical advertisement offices will be shut down and their contents will be confiscated accordingly.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on December 10, 2014
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on December 14, 2014

Sworn Translation Law

Law 22/2014
  • Regulates the sworn translation profession, which falls under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Justice and specifically the Sworn Translation Affairs Commission.
  • Lays down conditions for individuals intending to practice this profession, which includes swearing an oath before the first Civil Court of Appeal.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on November 3, 2014
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on November 9, 2014

Banking Courts Law

Law 21/2014
  • Courts of first instance and appeal shall be set up throughout the provinces to handle cases where one of the parties to the lawsuit is either a bank or other financial establishment.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on November 3, 2014
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on November 5, 2014

Housing Cooperatives Laws

Legislative Decrees 36/2014 & 37/2014
  • Amendments made by Legislative Decree 36/2014 permit beneficiaries of housing cooperative properties to transfer ownership to another party so long as they settle all their financial obligations.
  • In these circumstances, the housing cooperative authority shall charge a transfer fee equal to one percent of the purchase price or the estimated value of the property.
  • Additionally, beneficiaries are required to pay a fee amounting to no less than seven percent on all sums due to the cooperative up to the date the property is transferred to the new owner.
  • Previously, there was a prohibition on the transfer and resale of these types of properties for a period of up to 15 years.
  • The transfer of these properties is permitted so long as the person to whom the property is sold does not already own a housing cooperative unit.
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on August 19, 2014

Syrian Electronic School Law

Legislative Decree 34/2014
  • Establishes the Syrian Electronic School.
  • Provides online electronic education to students in grades 1-12.
  • Helps students who are unable to attend school to continue their educational studies.
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on August 11, 2014

Military Service Law

Legislative Decree 33/2014
  • Amends the main law contained in Legislative Decree 30/2007.
  • For individuals who have spent a minimum of four years abroad, they are entitled to pay a military service exemption fee of $8,000 (US); previously, the limits were set at a minimum of five years abroad and a fee of $15,000 (US).
  • For expatriates who are born abroad or who resided outside Syria, the amount is set at $2,500 (US).
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on August 3, 2014

Property Courts Law

Law 16/2014
  • Repeals the previous Law 89/1958.
  • Regulates the appointment of judges to the Property Courts.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on July 15, 2014
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on July 20, 2014

Notary Public Law

Law 15/2014
  • Repeals the previous Law 54/1959.
  • Regulates the notary public profession, which falls under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Justice.
  • Lays down conditions for individuals intending to practice this profession, which includes swearing an oath before a judge in the Court of First Instance.
  • Sets out the activities that notaries may undertake.
  • Notaries attest to the validity of contracts, wills and other legal documents as well as providing notarized copies of documents.
  • Provides for digital copies of notarized documents to be made.
  • Gives authority to consular staff abroad to undertake similar tasks.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on June 24, 2014
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on June 26, 2014

General Amnesty Law

Legislative Decree 22/2014
  • Grants an amnesty for crimes committed before 09/06/2014.
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on June 9, 2014

Hama University Law

Legislative Decree 19/2014
  • Establishes Hama University.
  • This University will initially be comprised of the following faculties:
  1. Medicine
  2. Education
  3. Agriculture
  4. Economy
  5. Nursing
  6. Literature and Human Sciences
  7. Veterinary Medicine
  8. Dentistry
  9. Physical Education
  10. Architecture
  11. Applied Sciences
  • The faculty and administrative staff of Hama University will be sourced from Baath University in neighbouring Homs.
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on May 13, 2014

Supreme Constitutional Court Law

Law 7/2014
  • Repeals the previous law contained in Legislative Decree 35/2012.
  • The Supreme Constitutional Court (SCC) is governed by the provisions of the Constitution (Arts. 140-149) and the recently updated legislation contained in this Law 7/2014, which lays down detailed procedures as to how the SCC operates.
  • The SCC has the following functions:
  1. Rules on the constitutionality of legislation;
  2. Oversees the presidential election, particularly since it reviews candidacy applications;
  3. Hears electoral disputes arising from the presidential and parliamentary elections; and
  4. The SCC has jurisdiction over the President of the Republic in the event he is accused of criminal offences.
  • The SCC is comprised of 11 judges appointed by the President of the Republic.
  • The judges serve four-year terms, which are renewable.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on April 13, 2014
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on April 16, 2014

Motor Vehicles Law

Legislative Decree 14/2014
  • Repeals the previous law contained in Legislative Decree 3/2014.
  • This law addresses circumstances whereby individuals transport their motor vehicles outside Syrian territory without intending to return them, which in most cases conveys a motive to sell them abroad.
  • According to this law, owners of registered motor vehicles are not permitted to transport their vehicles outside Syrian territory with the intention of selling them unless they fulfil their financial obligations, which include the payment of relevant fees.
  • Any person who contravenes these conditions shall be fined a sum equal to the registered value of the vehicle as recorded with the Transport Directorate.
  • The motor vehicle must be presented at the Syrian border or at the relevant diplomatic missions at least once a year or else the owner will be fined accordingly.
  • Owners of motor vehicles had six months from the promulgation of this law to comply with it.
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on April 5, 2014

Electoral Law

Law 5/2014
  • Governs presidential, parliamentary and local council elections.
  • Gives effect to the electoral process adopted in the current Constitution.
  • Supervision over the electoral process lies with the judiciary.
  • Lays down conditions that candidates for political office must satisfy including age, nationality and residency requirements.
  • Provides for the regulation of campaign financing.
  • Sanctions the use of criminal penalties to deal with violations in the electoral process.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on March 17, 2014
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on March 24, 2014

Electronic Commerce Law

Law 3/2014
  • Encourages and facilitates commercial transactions using electronic means.
  • Agreements between parties may be concluded electronically.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on March 4, 2014
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on March 11, 2014

Immigration Law

Law 2/2014
  • Repeals the previous law contained in Legislative Decree 29/1970.
  • With the exception of nationals from countries with special agreements with Syria, only individuals with valid passports and visas may enter Syrian territory.
  • Visa-free travel into Syria by all Arab nationals is no longer the case.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on March 4, 2014
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on March 11, 2014

Public Relations Officers Law

Legislative Decree 12/2014
  • Sets conditions for persons intending to practice the profession of public relations officers (PRO).
  • PROs are subject to the General Federation of Craftsmen.
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on February 2, 2014.

Passports Law

Law 1/2014
  • Deals with the granting of passports to Syrian citizens living abroad.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on December 29, 2013
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on January 6, 2014

Copyright Law

Legislative Decree 62/2013
  • Repeals the previous Copyright Law 12/2001.
  • Covers a variety of works.
  • Protects the moral and economic rights of authors to exploit their works.
  • On average, grants 50-year protection periods following the death of an author for most works.
  • Foreign authors have the ability under certain conditions to obtain copyright protection.
  • The Directorate for the Protection of Copyright and Related Rights is tasked with overseeing the implementation of this law.
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on September 16, 2013

Private Security Companies Law

Legislative Decree 55/2013
  • Permits the licensing of private security companies, which are responsible for ensuring the safety of individuals and property.
  • Stipulates that the Ministry of Interior shall have the authority to license these companies.
  • One-year renewable licenses are to be issued by the Ministry of Interior to security companies owned solely by Syrian nationals with a capital of not less than SYP 50 million.
  • Each company shall be licensed to recruit between 300 and 800 guards.
  • The Ministry of Interior shall grant these companies the authority to use firearms and approve candidates for guard work while the companies are responsible for training and equipping their employees.
  • Guards will have the power to arrest perpetrators but they must make a report to the police as soon as they make an arrest.
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on August 5, 2013

Currency Transaction Law

Legislative Decree 54/2013
  • Criminalizes the sale of goods priced in any currency other than the Syrian Pound in order to increase demand for the local currency.
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on August 4, 2013

Money Laundering Law

Legislative Decree 46/2013
  • Amends the main law contained in Legislative Decree 33/2005.
  • Adds further crimes to the definition of illicit funds with the aim of bringing the law in line with international standards.
  • The Anti-Money Laundering Commission may impose administrative sanctions and fines amounting up to SYP 100 million if it deems it appropriate to do so.
  • Where necessary, the names of relevant individuals and entities shall be forwarded to the Ministry of Foreign and Expatriate Affairs in order to determine whether an asset freeze is required.
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on July 9, 2013

Foreign Exchange Law

Law 18/2013
  • Amends the main Law 24/2006 (and Law 29/2012, which originally amended Law 24/2006) with regards to the penalties imposed on persons who practice the foreign exchange profession without a license.
  • Any violators shall be imprisoned for a period of 3-10 years in addition to having their cash seized and furthermore, a fine amounting to three times the value of the sums seized shall be imposed but in any event, the minimum fine is set at SYP 5 million.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on June 30, 2013
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on July 4, 2013

Children Combat Law

Law 11/2013
  • Amends the Criminal Code contained in Legislative Decree 148/1949 by inserting two new provisions.
  • Punishes any individual who recruits a child less than 18 years of age for the purposes of involving them in combat or other related activities.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on June 24, 2013
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on June 30, 2013

National Trespass Law

Law 9/2013
  • Imposes penalties on individuals who enter Syrian territory illegally.
  • Trespassers may be punished by a prison sentence amounting to 5-10 years and/ or a fine of SYP 5-10 million.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on June 23, 2013
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on June 25, 2013

Pensions Law

Legislative Decree 39/2013
  • Stipulates for an increase in the monthly pensions of retired civil servants and military personnel.
  • Provides for the following increases in the monthly pensions:
  1. 25% for the first SYP 10,000;
  2. 20% for the second SYP 10,000; and
  3. 10% for the amount above the second SYP 10,000.
  • These increases took effect on July 1, 2013.
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on June 22, 2013

Employment Salaries Law

Legislative Decree 38/2013
  • Stipulates for an increase in the monthly salaries of civil servants and military personnel.
  • Provides for the following increases in the monthly salaries and wages:
  1. 40% for the first SYP 10,000;
  2. 20% for the second SYP 10,000;
  3. 10% for the third SYP 10,000; and
  4. 5% for the amount above the third SYP 10,000.
  • Increases the minimum wage of the private, cooperative and mixed public-private sectors that are not included in the Public Employment Law 50/2004 to SYP 13,670 per month.
  • These increases took effect on July 1, 2013.
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on June 22, 2013

Property Disposition Law

Legislative Decree 26/2013
  • Dictates when proprietors of land subject to planning are permitted and not permitted to dispose of their property.
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on April 25, 2013

General Amnesty Law

Legislative Decree 23/2013
  • Grants an amnesty for crimes committed before 16/04/2013.
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on April 16, 2013

Kidnapping Law

Legislative Decree 20/2013
  • Punishes any individual involved in kidnappings and various penalties are imposed depending on motive.
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on April 2, 2013

Economic Criminal Code

Law 3/2013
  • Repeals the previous law contained in Legislative Decree 37/1966.
  • Deals with crimes of an economic nature.
  • A sample of punishable offences listed in this Law include harming public property, wasting public funds, bribery, smuggling, etc.
Approved by the People’s Assembly on March 17, 2013
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on March 20, 2013

Financial Prosecution Law

Legislative Decree 10/2013
  • Establishes the Financial Prosecution Office (FPO).
  • The FPO is responsible for prosecuting crimes relating to public funds.
Promulgated by President Bashar Al-Assad on January 16, 2013